Inyigisho

Tumenye Bibiliya :igitabo cy’itangiriro Kuremwa kw’Isi n’uburyo abanyabwenge bibeshya

Mbere na mbere Imana yaremye ijuru n’isi (Itang.1:1).
Iri ni rimwe mu magambo akomeye kuruta ayandi, kandi kugeza n’ubu dusanga iri jambo
rikomeje gutera urujijo abantu. Ndatekereza ko uyu murongo ariwo wa mbere utubwira neza
iremwa nyakuri ry’ibintu byose, nkuko tuzabibona mu biganiro biri imbere; bivuga ibijyanye no
kuremwa k’umuntu n’inyamanswa kandi ibi byose tukaba tubisanga muri iki gitabo
cy’Itangiriro. Iyi ni inkuru y’iremwa, kandi ndemeza ko ari incamake nyayo.
Uwitwa Dr. Ralph, umwarimu w’ibinyabuzima cyangwa Biologie mu rurimi rw’amahanga;
akaba n’umuyobozi ushinzwe gutunganya gahunda z’abanyeshure barangiza amashuri muri
Kaminuza ya California i Davis yigeze kuvuga ku ihame cyangwa se “theorie yo kurema.” Iyo
theorie cyangwa se iryo hame yaryise “stork” ariko igitangaje ni uko iyo theorie itari muri
Bibiliya namba, nyamara ibyo kurema byanditswe muri Bibiliya. Dusanga ibyo yagereranije
bidahuye; kubera ko Bibiliya ivuga uko byose byagenze kuva isi yaremwa; ikavuga kandi n’ibyo
kororoka; kandi iyo usoma Bibiliya neza ntaho uzigera usanga yemeza ibi byavuzwe na Dr.
Ralph! Ndabizi neza ko abantu benshi bazi byinshi kubyerekeranye no kurema mu buryo
busanzwe; kuko wenda babyiga mu isomo ry’ibinyabuzima rizwi ku izina rya Biologie, ariko
bazi bike muri Bibiliya.
Iyo tugarutse nanone ku kibazo cy’inkomoko; dusanga gitera kutumvikana no kudahuza
amagambo menshi; kandi ni cyo kintu gitera ibibazo kuruta ibindi. Kuko buri gihe usangamo
ibyo abantu bagiye bongeramo bagashaka ko amagambo yabo yumvikana kuruta ibyo Imana
ivuga. Hano tuhabona ibice bibiri bikomeye by’abantu bavuga kuri iki kibazo cy’inkomoko,
kandi bakora ibishoboka byose kugira ngo abantu bumve ibyabo. Igice cya mbere kivuga ko
gishingiye ku bushakashatsi busanzwe, bakizera ibyo isomo ry’ibinyabuzima (Biologie) rivuga.
Ibyo bizera n’ibyo bakura mu bushakashatsi. Mu kanya kari imbere turaza kurebera hamwe icyo
bavuga ku bijyanye no kuremwa. Ikindi gice cya kabiri kigizwe n’abantu bize iby’Ijambo
ry’Imana ari byo benshi bita Theologie. Aba ngaba usanga bibwira ko bafite ibitekerezo biri
hejuru bagashaka kwerekana ko bazi uburyo Imana yabigenjenje. Akenshi usanga bishingikiriza
ukuri kw’ibyo bize, maze uko kuri bagashaka kukugereranya n’ukuri kwa Bibiliya.
Nshobora kuvuga ko ayo matsinda yombi. Ryaba itsinda ry’abiga ibinyabuzia (Biologie),
cyangwa itsinda ry’abiga Ijambo ry’Imana (Theologie); bose bagomba gushyira mu gaciro ibyo
Imana yabwiye Yobu ubwo yamwiyerekaga. Imana yaramubajije iti: “Igihe nashingaga imfatiro
z’isi wari he? Niba uzi ubwenge bivuge (Yobu 38:4). Mu yandi magambo Imana irimo kubwira
umuntu iti, “Uravuga ibyo kuremwa cyangwa inkomoko y’ibintu ariko wowe ubwawe ntabwo
uzi aho wari uri ubwo nashingaga imfatiro z’isi!”
Igitekerezo cyo guhindagurika kw’ibihe cyangwa se evolution; ni kimwe mubyemerwa cyane
kuruta ibindi bitekerezo byose muri iki gihe. Uhereye kera hariho abantu bamwe bagiye bemera
bene ibi bitekerezo byo guhindagurika kw’ibihe ari byo evolution, ariko hari n’abandi bagiye
babihakana. Guhindagurika kw’ibihe cyangwa evolution ntabwo bisobanurwa mu mibare gusa
nk’uko twavuga ngo 2+2=4. Uretse n’imibare kandi; ntekereza ko nta bundi buhanga bw’abana
b’abantu bwatwemeza ibijyanye no kuremwa dusanga mu gitabo cy’Itangiriro igice cya 1.
Ahubwo igituma twemera ibi byose nk’ukuri, ni uko tubyizera. Imana ni yo yaremye byose,
kandi ifite ubwo bubasha bwo kubirema. Ntekereza ko ari yo mpamvu byayobeye
abashakashatsi; kuko iby’Imana bibasiga ubwenge. Umwanditsi w’Abaheburayo yaravuze ngo:
“Kwizera ni ukumenya rwose ibyiringirwa udashidikanya ko bitazaba, kandi ni ko kuduhamiriza
ibyo tutareba ko ari iby’ukuri. Icyatumye aba kera bahamywa neza. Kwizera ni ko kutumenyesha
ko isi yaremwe n’Ijambo ry’Imana, ni cyo cyatumye ibiboneka bitaremwe mu bigaragara”
(Abaheburayo 11:1-3). Ariko kugeza ubu haracyari ikibazo ku byerekeye no kuremwa ku isi.
Nigute ushobora kuvuga ko ibiboneka byavuye mu bitaboneka? Uburyo bwonyine washobora
kubyemera ni mu kwizera kandi ibyo science ivuga ni ugukeka nta kuri kurimo.
Ubu rero reka turebe ku byo abantu bavuga ku bijyanye n’inkomoko cyangwa se imvo
n’imvano y’ibyaremwe. Hari abavuga ko tugomba kwemera ibyo abize bavuga. Nshuti yanjye
ndashaka kukubaza iki kibazo. Abize bavuga iki kubijyanye no kuremwa? Mu mwaka wa 1806
Professeur Lyell yaravuze ngo; imibare itari munsi y’ibice umunani bya ma theories agerageza
kuvuguruza Ibyanditswe byera; ariko ayo ma theorie, nta hame na rimwe rikiriho cyangwa se
rikemewe muri kino gihe. Ayo mahame cyangwa ama theories byaribagiranywe.
Mose ni we muntu Imana yakoresheje mu kwandika iki gitabo cy’Itangiriro, ariko aramutse
agarutse uyu munsi akumva ibivugwa kubijyanye no kuremwa; ntekereza ko ashobora gutangara.
Pawulo yagaragaje intego y’ibyanditswe aho agira ati: “Ibyanditswe byera byose byahumetswe
n’Imana, kandi bigira umumaro wo kwigisha umuntu, no kwemeza ibyaha bye no
kumutunganya, kumuhanira gukiranuka: kugira ngo umuntu w’Imana abe ashyitse, afite
ibimukwiriye byose ngo akore imirimo myiza yose (2Timoteyo 3:16). Intego y’Ibyanditswe ni
uguhanira umuntu gukiranuka. Ntabwo byanditswe ngo bitwigishe ubumenyi bw’isi nka
masomo y’ibinyabuzima (Bilogie) cyangwa se Geologie. Byanditswe kugira ngo umuntu
asabane n’Imana. Byanditswe kugira ngo bitumenyeshe icyo Imana ishaka ku muntu n’icyo
umuntu agomba gukora kugira ngo akizwe. Ushobora kwandika ibi ku gice cya mbere
cy’Itangiriro wibaza ngo: “N’iki nshobora gukora kugira ngo nkizwe?”
Nshobora kukubaza nti; Mbese iyo Imana iza kuduha ibyanditswe bivuga ku kuremwa
bishingiye ku bitekerezo by’abantu, ni bangahe bo mu gihe cya Mose barigushobora kubyemera?
Ni bangahe bo muri iki gihe cyacu barikubyumva? Ugomba kumenya ko Bibiliya itandikiwe
abantu bize gusa (aba professeurs), ahubwo yandikiwe n’abantu batize b’ingeri zose kandi bo
mu bihugu byose.
Abantu benshi bagerageje gutanga ibitekerezo byinshi bijyanye no kuremwa kw’isi. Bamwe
bavuga ko ari umugani. Ndemera ko kuremwa ku isi kurenze cyane ibyo twebwe abana b’abantu
twibwira; ariko nanone kudasobanukirwa uko isi yaremwe ntabwo byatuma tuvuga ngo ni
umugani! Rero hari abumva bibarenze maze bagatangira bakavuga ngo kurewa ku isi ni
umugani! Imana itubabarire. Hari abandi bizera ko isi yatangiriye ku busa. (nta na hamwe
Bibiliya ibivuga uko, ahubwo itubwira ko Imana yayiremye). Abandi na bo bavuga ko isi idafite
aho yavuye ahubwo bakemeza ko isi yahozeho. Abandi na bo bakavuga ko isi yaremwe; yewe
hari n’abandi bantu benshi batizera bagerageza kwandika basobanura inkomoko y’isi uko bitari.
Dore bamwe muri abo bantu bavuze ibyerekeranye n’amateka y’isi. Dr. Harlow Shapely,
uwigeze kuba umuyobozi wa kaminuza ya Harvard, yanditse agira atya ati; “turi mu bujiji
bwinshi kubera ko tutazi ibintu biri ku isi dutuyeho. Yongeraho ati, ibyo tutazi birenze ibyo
tuzi”. Mu yandi magambo turacyari mu mwijima ku bijyanye n’inkomoko y’isi tubayeho.
Uwitwa Dr. Loren C. Eiseley, umukuru mu biro bya Kaminuza ya Pennyslvania, bigeze
kumubaza ikibazo kubyerekeye no kuremwa ku isi arasubiza ati “Ntabwo tuzi byinshi, ndetse
ntituzi n’uko byagenze ngo isi iremwe; icyo tuzi ni uko igisubizo gikwiye gushakwa mu buryo
bw’umwuka atari uburyo bw’umubiri”. Rero ndatekereza ko twebwe abantu tutabasha kumenya
bihagije ibyerekeye kuremwa ku isi keretse Umwuka Wera iyo adusobanuriye. Haleluya! Isi
irasa n’ikintu cyavuye mu rukurikirane rw’ibindi bintu byinshi, kandi nta kindi kiruta ibi tuza
kuvuga hepfo. Abantu bamwe bavuga ko umuntu ndetse n’ibindi binyabuzima byakomotse mu
bindi bintu byagiye bihindagurika; ariko ikiri inyuma yabyo ntacyo tuzi. Ndifuza kukumara
impungenge niba nawe uri mu batemera ko Imana yaremye isi n’ibiyirimo byose; kandi
nkubwije ukuri, kugaragaza ubuswa mu magambo menshi ntacyo byakungura umuntu na gato.
Hari agatabo kavuga ngo; umuntu ari hafi kuvumbura ibanga ry’inkomoko y’isi. Ibyo byaba
byaranditswe kera mu mwaka wa 1961. Ariko kuva icyo gihe cyose nta kintu gishyasha
twaritwumva.
Edwin Conklin, umwe mu bashakashatsi biga ku nkomoko y’ubuzima bw’abantu
(biologiste), yavuze kubijyanye n’ihindagurika ry’ibintu, ati; “kubaho kw’ibintu kwavuye ku
mpanuka, ugereranije n’ubushobozi bw’igitabo nka dictionnaire cyangwa gasobanuzi gisohoka
kiva mu icapiro ry’ibitabo.” Ibyo birumvikana ko ari ibintu byavuzwe n’umunyabwenge bw’isi.
Abahanga mu byo kwiga inyenyeri zo mu kirere bagaruka kenshi ku bitekerezo bitatu bivuga
ku kuremwa kw’isi; kandi ndatekereza ko ari ngombwa ko tubivugaho. Kimwe muri ibyo
bitekerezo ni icyitwa “steady state” tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda twabyita “ihindagurika rya
hato na hato” ikindi nicyo bise “big bang” cyangwa “guturagurika” hanyuma igitekerezo cya
nyuma ni icyo bise “oscillating” tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni “uguhindagurika guhoraho”.
Umunyabwenge witwa Dr. William yabwiye abantu ko isi yahozeho kandi ko nanone
hakomeje kuvugwa byinshi byerekeranye no kuremwa ku isi. Dr. Baum we yashyigikiye
igitekerezo cya “big bang”, iki gitekerezo kivuga ko mu myaka imiliyari yatambutse habayeho
guturagurika gukomeye yane ku butaka bw’isi.
Mu myaka myinshi yashize, uwitwa Dr. Louis Leakey, nawe yari umushakashatsi (kandi yari
umwana w’umumisiyoneri) yavumbuye muri Afurika icyo yise “missing link” tugenekereje mu
Kinyarwanda twabyita “ibyabuze isano.” Yacukuye ahantu ahasanga agahanga k’umuntu gafite
amenyo uwo muntu amwita “nutcracker man” cyangwa umuntu wangiritse mu Kinyarwanda.
Yavuze ko bishoboka ko kaba ari agahanga k’umwana umaze imyaka nk’ibihumbi magana
atandatu. Yego, ibyo tumaze kubyumva kenshi kuva kera, ariko kandi kuva mu 1961 nta
gishyashya turabona mu bushakashatsi nk’ubwo. Hahora hagaruka bya bindi! Ndatekereza ko
abanyabwenge b’isi ntacyo barageraho rwose, byarabananiye.
Hari ubundi buryo bwo gusobanura inkomoko y’umuntu. Dr. Lawrence S. Dillon yaravuze
ngo, “umuntu ntabwo ari inyamanswa, ahubwo yavuye mu bimera by’ibiti bifite ishusho imeze
nk’umuntu biba mazi. Nyamara nawe ibye ntabwo byumvikana. Hari ibindi, abandi
bashakashatsi bashingiye ho. Ibyo nta bindi; ni ibikoresho bya kera byatoraguwe, maze
bikegeranywa mu ruganda kandi bakemeza ko bimaze imyaka myinshi cyane kuruta ibindi byose
byari bimaze igihe byaravumbuwe.” Byari biteye amatsiko cyane gutoragura bene ibi bintu
ibintu byo mu gihe cya kera cyane.
Yewe hari n’ibindi bitekerezo byinshi bikomeje kuvugwa nanone muri iki gihe byerekana
uko isi yatangiye. Uwitwa Dr. Klaus Mampell wo mugihugu cy’Ubudage. Yatanze icyegeranyo
kivuga ko nta mpamvu abona igaragaza (twebwe abantu) dufitanye isano n’ingagi, n’inyoni,
cyangwa se izindi nyamaswa nka kangaroos.
Igitekerezo kivuga ku ihindagurika ry’umuntu cyangwa se (theorie ya evolution) gifite ibice
byinshi. Ariko ibyo bice ntabwo bigaragaza ukuri kose. Ibyo byose ni ugukekeranya ntabwo aba
bahanga b’iyi theorie ya evlution bavuga ibintu bifite ukuri kuko biba bishingiye ku
marangamutima n’ubwenge byabo. Ngerageza kureba ibyo abarimu bigisha mu masomo na za
science; ariko ntabwo bajya batanga umurongo mwiza; ariko ntawarenganya abarimu kuko na bo
bavuga ibyo bigishijwe mu ishuri.
Abemera ihame ry’ihindagurika cyangwa theorie ya evolution; na bo ubwabo ntibahuza. Mu
gitabo yise Implications of Evolution, umugabo w’umu evolutioniste wemera ibyo guhindagurika
kw’ibintu, witwa Dr. Kerkut, wakoraga mu ishami ry’amasomo y’ubumenyamuntu
n’ibinyabuzima ari byo Physiology and Biochimie muri Kaminuza ya Southampton mu
Bwongereza; yanditse agira ati: “inyamaswa nyinshi zirahindagurika zikavamo andi moko
y’inyamanswa mashya”. Ibi ni byo yise ngo “Special Theory of Evolution” tugenekereje mu
Kinyarwanda ni ihame ridasanzwe ry’ihindagurika ry’ibintu. Hari indi theorie cyangwa ihame
rivuga ko ibiri kw’isi byose bifte inkomoko imwe, ngo byavuye ahantu hamwe iyo nkomoko
y’ibyo bintu nayo ikaba yaravuye mu yindi nkomoko itazwi. Iyi theorie cyangwa iryo hame ngo
ryitwa “General Theory of Evolution” ariko naryo nta kuri gufatika rifite ahubwo n’igitekerezo
nk’ibindi byose. hari ibindi byatoraguwe mu gihugu cya Suwede bivumbuwe na botanist, Dr.
Heribert Nilsson wize ibijyanye n’ibimera nk’ibiti, uyu yemerag theorie ya evolution cyane ariko
yarangije ubushakashatsi bwe avuga ati: “Nakoze ibishoboka byose kugira ngo nsobanure ibya
evolution mu gihe kirenga imyaka mirongo ine ariko byaranze rwose. Ati; noneho amaherezo
ndatinya kubera yuko bashobora kundega ko ntemera ibya evolution …” byumvikana ko yasanze
iri hame ry’ihindagurika ry’ibintu ritavuga ukuri. Ibisigisigi by’amagufwa ni kimwe mu bintu
byifashishwa kugira ngo abantu bige theorie ya evolution cyangwa se ihame ry’ihindagurika
ry’ibintu ariko ndakubwiza ukuri abiga theories ya evolution babuze ibihamya nyakuri. Ntabwo
bazigera babibona kandi nta n’ubwo ibitekerezo byabo bizigera bihura na rimwe n’ukuri
kw’Ijambo ry’Imana.
Ikindi kintu nakubwira nshuti yanjye; ni uko hari n’amadini menshi afite imyizerere
ishingiye kuri iri hame rya evolution cyangwa ryo guhindagurika kw’ibintu. Imana idufashe
cyane! Kugira ngo wemere kuba umu evolutionist ugomba kubyizera. Iki gitegekerezo
cy’ihindagurika kirimo gukekeranya ukomeye kandi niko cyahoze kuva na kera. Ariko ikibabaje
n’uko hari abantu benshi bakomeje kucyemera.
Muri iyi minsi hari itsinda ry’aba theologiens (aba ni abantu biga ibya Bibiliya) bashaka
kwigira abanyabwenge cyane, bamaze kwishyiriraho ihame ryabo rizwi ku izina rya “theistic
evolution.” Tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni “ihindagurika ry’ibintu ry’abemeramana”. Ariko
navuga ko aba ba theologiens bize ibya Bibiliya batandukiriye cyane; kuko ntibashobora na gato
gusobanukirwa uko Imana yabigenje kugira ngo ireme ibyo tubona uyu munsi; kabone n’iyo
baba barize Bibiliya inshuro zingana iki. Uwitwa Kirtly Mather, mu gitabo yise “Science
Ponders Religion” yaravuze ngo: “Umu theologien, cyangwa se uwize ibya Bibiliya wemera
evolution nk’uburyo bwakoreshejwe n’Umuremyi, agomba guhindura iyo nzira. Ati; theistic
evolution cyangwa ihindagurika ry’ibintu ry’abemeramana ni ryo hame rya mbere ridafite ukuri
na guke! Ni ihame ridafite ishingiro, kandi ridakwiriye. Hari abagikomeje gukora imirimo ibiri
nka ya mpyisi. Bishaka kuvuga ko bemera ibya Bibiliya ariko kandi bakemera na evolution ari
ryo hame ry’ihidagurika. Bemera ibitari byo bakongera bagatwara Bibiliya mu ntoki zabo.
Mwene data, biragoye gukora byombi. Twabigereranya n’ibyo mu gihe cy’imikino ya Olimpike
y’Abagiriki ya kera; bagendera kw’ifarashi ebyiri; ukuguru kumwe kw’ifarasha imwe, ukundi ku
yindi farashi. Byabaga binejeje mu gihe izo farashi zombi zagenderaga mu nzira imwe. Ariko iyo
imwe muri zi yafata inzira yayo n’indi ikerekeza ahandi, uzitwaye yagombambaga guhitamo iyo
agenderaho.
Gusoza
Hariho ibintu bitatu abemera evolution badashobora gusobanura: icya mbere ntibashobora
gusobanura ukuntu ibintu byaremwe bihereye ku busa busa. Icya kabiri ntibashobora gusobanura
uko ubuzima bw’ibintu bwatangiye kubaho. Icya gatatu ntibashobora gutandukanya ubugingo
n’umuntu.
Hari itandukaniro riri hagati y’abantu bemera ko Imana yaremye isi, n’abantu bemera ko isi
yahozeho kuva kera bashingiye kuri evolution yabo, aho bavuga ngo ni ibintu byagiye
bihindagurika.
Ijambo ry’Imana riravuga ngo Imana yaremye isi nkuko yabishatse, yashimye rero kuyirema
inezezwa nayo. Mu gitabo cy’Ibyahishuriwe Yohana 4:11 haravuga ngo : “Mwami wacu Mana
yacyu ukwiriye guhabwa icyubahiro no guhimbazwa n’ubutware kuko ari Wowe waremye
byose. Igituma biriho kandi icya tumye ubirema ni uko wabishatse.”
Imana ntabwo yapfuye kurema isi gutyo gusa; ahubwo yari ifite impamvu kandi zimwe muri
izo mpamvu ni izi: impamvu ya mbere ni uko yabishatse, kandi ikayishimira, Iya kabiri ni
kubw’icyubahiro cyayo. Mwene data ntacyo byaba bimaze kwemera ibyo abanyabwenge b’isi
bavuga kuruta kwemera icyo Ijambo ry’Imana ritubwira. Nawe ubwawe umenye ko Imana
yakuremye ifite intego ku buzima bwawe. Icyatumye ikurema ni ukugira ngo use nayo, kandi usabane nayo.

Ev.Parfait Ntamvutsa

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